NOTE: This may or may not apply to earlier Windows versions (Vista, 7, 8, 8.1). I've only seen this on Windows 10.
- Close Steam entirely (make sure it is not running).
- Open File Explorer and go to the steamapps common directory. The default location is:
- Look for files that are 0 KB in size and delete them:
0 KB file listing in steamapps common folder
- Restart steam and try installing or running the game again.
Found two more potential issues.
- Corrupt files in the downloading directory
- Shut down steam.
- Go to your steam installation directory then steamapps in file explorer.
- Look for a directory named downloading.
- Delete it.
- Start steam and retry.
- Read only permissions
- Shut own steam.
- Used file explorer to go the the steam installation directory.
- Right click and select Properties.
- Uncheck the Read-only option.
- Click Apply and allow it to change permissions on all sub-folders and files.